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Video editing Is referred to as the process of manipulating and re-arranging raw video shots to create a meaningful sequence. Video editing comes under the post production stage of a film, and within that, there are many stages to video editing such as colour grading and effects compositing. Video editors usually have to also inter-cut audio effects and Foley (reproduction of everyday items to enhance audio quality) with the video to marry up what you see and what you hear. Without the editing process in a film, a film would end up with just a jumbled amount of footage on screen with no order.
Editing can used by a filmmaker to create a wide verity of different styles. Colour grading can give the footage a vintage look, or could emulate the look of recording on tape. There are different techniques that editors use to create a scene in a film. If the scene the editor is editing is romantic, the editing style will be slow, meaning the cuts will stay on screen for a long time, on the other hand, if the editor was editing an action scene, the editing style would be fast. So, there would be fast, aggressive cuts with shots lasting for no more than 3 seconds on screen.
Editors are used to working with large amounts of footage. For example, an editor who specialises in editing weddings may have 500 GB of footage to edit, (about 800 clips). All of this footage has to be organised into folders and imported into the software. An editor may then transcode his raw footage to a proxy resolution to speed his editing up, so he would use a lower resolution version of the raw footage to edit, but then relink to the original – high resolution raw footage to export.
Some conventions of editing video include:
continuity – the process of cutting to keep the flow of the shots together as fluidly as possible, without showing all the unnecessary footage.
Jump cut – a type of editing transition that is very fast. This gives you a sense of confusion in space and time. This is usually used to keep the flow of continuity going within the film.
Montage – this is a technique in film editing in which as series of short shots are edited together in a sequence to condense space time and information.
Cross cutting – this is an editing technique used most often to establish action occurring at the same time in two different locations. In a cross-cut the camera will cut away from one action to another action, which can suggest two things happening at once, and the tension that brings to the viewer.
Editing to a sound track – Editing to sound is when the pace of the cuts is motivated by how fast the song is. The editor would let the sound be his guide.
J & L Cuts – a J cut is a video editing technique whereby the audio from the following scene overlaps the picture from the proceeding scene, so that the audio portion of the later scene starts playing before it’s picture as a lead-in to the visual cut. An L cut is that In reverse!
HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF EDITING KEY DATES.
| January 1900 - beginning of editing in motion picture.
The very first films were called actualities, they were single shot film meaning they didn’t have angle changes or cups in them. The movie was recorded on film and as it was rolling to record, the amount of film you had determined the amount of time for your movie. The films looked more like a play; with a single camera pointing at a stage with actors acting out a plot in front of the camera
| August 1903 - the great train robbery:
D. Edwin S. Porter made a 10-minute dramatic film where he was the first to use a number of innovative techniques, many of them for the first time, such as parallel editing, minor camera movement, location shooting and less stage-bound camera placement. It also featured multiple camera positions, filming out of sequence and later editing the scenes into their proper order.
| March 1908 - first animated cartoon:
French caricature artist Emile Cohl created what us considered to be the world's first animated cartoon in 1908. His black and white short film, fantasmagorie, is composed of 700 drawings that Cohl illuminated on glass plated.
| October 1923 - walt disney animation studio founder:
An American animation studio which creates animated feature films, short films and television specials for the walt disney company. The studio has produced 53 featured films.
| December 1925 - montages first used in film Battleship Potemkin (1925, USSR) :
D. sergei eisenstein film editor, legendary russian auteur director sergei eisenstein’s classic landmark and visionary film was released in the US in 1929, advancing the art of cinematic storytelling with the techniques of montage. Its most celebrated film scene with superb editing combined wide, newsreel-like sequences inner-cut with close up og harrowing details to increase tension.
| History of Editing software
The Avid Media Composer was the first computer-based editing software available on the market and allowed editors to cut films in a nonlinear fashion (thus the name NLE). Most films in that era and today are cut on avid media composer because of it’s rock solid establishment within the industry. Avid (the parent company of media composer was founded bill warner). After the establishment of avid media composer in the market, apple established its own editing software named final cut pro, which was also used in quite a few movies. Unfortunately, final cut died in the professional market with the release of final cut pro 10. Editors have since been forced to move to alternative softwares such as adobe premiere pro.
Referances used: Avid.com, Adobe.com, https://firstsiteguide.com/what-is-blog/,